Annenberg School for Communication
University of Pennsylvania
Health Equity & Inclusive Approaches to Study Recruitment
In-person vs. online approaches to study recruitment
Tobacco use and the associated consequences are much more prevalent among low-SES populations in the U.S. However, tobacco-based research often does not include these harder-to-reach populations. This paper compares the effectiveness and drawbacks of three methods of recruiting low-SES adult smokers in the Northeast. For research and interventions where either inclusion considerations or external validity with low-SES populations is critical, especially the most disadvantaged, our research supports the use of field-based methods. It also highlights the importance of adequate funding and time to enable the recruitment and participation of these harder-to-reach populations.
Graphic warnings on tobacco advertisements: Implications for low-SES adult smokers and middle school youth
Exposure to cigarette advertising can increase the likelihood of youth smoking initiation and may encourage people who already smoke to continue. This study examines the impact of graphic versus text-only warning labels (both with identical text) in cigarette advertising, focusing on susceptibility to smoking (among at-risk youth) and intentions to quit (among adult smokers). Specifically, we report on two randomized experiments, featuring youth and adults from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities, testing whether GWLs (versus text-only warnings) influence visual attention, negative affect, risk beliefs and cigarette brand appeal. Graphic warnings outperformed text-only warnings in reducing visual attention to the advertisement, generating visual attention to the warning and arousing more negative affect. Graphic warnings also reduced the appeal of cigarette brands among youth relative to social cue advertisements with the Surgeon General’s warnings.